The Cannabis Papers: A citizen’s guide to cannabinoids (2011)
Today’s cannabinoid science Nano Edition notes five 2014 PubMed articles on the cannabinoid system (CS) modulating homeostasis – one with news from our political future: nanoplatforms for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinoldelivery. The line-up links to CS PubMed articles discussing: THC and traumatic brain injury, Crohn’s disease pathways, intestinal inflammation, salient stimuli and CS nanotechnology.
I. Homeostasis (Traumatic Brain Injury) and the CS (THC)
“Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids. The objective of this study was to establish a relationship between the presence of a positive toxicology screen for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and mortality after TBI. A 3-year retrospective review of registry data at a Level I center of patients sustaining TBI having a toxicology screen was performed. … A positive THC screen is associated with decreased mortality in adult patients sustaining TBI.”
Effect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury.
Nguyen BM, Kim D, Bricker S, Bongard F, Neville A, Putnam B, Smith J, Plurad D.
Am Surg. 2014 Oct;80(10):979-83.
PMID: 25264643 [PubMed - in process]
II. Crohn’s Disease (Colitis) and the Opioid and Cannabinoid Systems
“The aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/PKG/K ATP + pathway, cannabinoids and opioids in remote antinociception associated with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. … This disorder appears to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/KATP pathway, endocannabinoids and endogenous opioids. This information may contribute to a better understanding of peripheral neurological dysfunctions occurring in Crohn's disease.”
Colitis generates remote antinociception in rats: the role of the L-arginine/NO/cGMP/PKG/KATP pathway and involvement of cannabinoid and opioid systems.
Barbosa AL, de Sousa RB, Torres JN, Cunha TM, Cunha FD, Soares PM, Ribeiro RD, Vale ML, Souza MH.
Inflamm Res. 2014 Oct 7. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 25286904 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
III. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (Colitis) and the CS
“In an attempt to further investigate the role of cannabinoid (CB) system in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, we employed two recently developed ligands, AM841 (a covalently acting CB agonist) and CB13 (a peripherally-restricted CB agonist) to establish whether central and peripheral CB sites are involved in the anti-inflammatory action in the intestine. … This is the first evidence that central and peripheral CB receptors are responsible for the protective and therapeutic action of cannabinoids in mouse models of colitis. Our observations provide new insight to CB pharmacology and validate the use of novel ligands AM841 and CB13 as potent tools in CB-related research.”
Cannabinoids alleviate experimentally induced intestinal inflammation by acting at central and peripheral receptors.
Fichna J, Bawa M, Thakur GA, Tichkule R, Makriyannis A, McCafferty DM, Sharkey KA, Storr M.
PLoS One. 2014 Oct 2;9(10):e109115. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109115. eCollection 2014.
PMID: 25275313 [PubMed - in process] Free PMC Article
IV. Homeostasis (Salient Stimuli) and the CS (THC and CBD)
“There is now considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that psychotic symptoms are the result of abnormal salience attribution, and that the attribution of salience is largely mediated through the prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Although these areas show differential activation under the influence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the two major derivatives of cannabis sativa, little is known about the effects of these cannabinoids on the functional connectivity between these regions. We investigated this in healthy occasional cannabis users by employing event-related fMRI following oral administration of delta-9-THC, CBD or a placebo capsule. … Our results suggest that the functional integration of brain regions involved in salience processing is differentially modulated by single doses of delta-9-THC and CBD and that this relates to the processing of salient stimuli.”
Cannabinoid Modulation of Functional Connectivity within Regions Processing Attentional Salience.
Bhattacharyya S, Falkenberg I, Martin-Santos R, Atakan Z, Crippa JA, Giampietro V, Brammer M, McGuire P.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 Sep 24. doi: 10.1038/npp.2014.258. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 25249057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
V. Homeostasis Future: Nanoplatforms for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinoldelivery
“The objective of this work is to develop a nanoplatform that can potentiate the oral administration of Δ9-tetrahidrocannabinol, a highly lipophilic active agent with very promising antiproliferative and antiemetic activities. To that aim, colloidal carriers based on the biodegradable and biocompatible poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) were investigated. … To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles have been formulated for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinoldelivery.”
Engineering of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol delivery systems based on surface modified-PLGA nanoplatforms.
Martín-Banderas L, Muñoz-Rubio I, Alvarez-Fuentes J, Durán-Lobato M, Arias JL, Holgado MA, Fernández-Arévalo M.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2014 Sep 16. pii: S0927-7765(14)00461-5. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.09.002. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 25262411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Bonus: Rick Simpson THC Interview on Red Ice Radio.
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Tomorrow: a Halloween (almost-scary) dialogue on the BWB Blog: “Calling Steve About My Halloween Dream Return.” Next CS Homeostasis: Veteran’s Day and a PTSD edition, Sunday 9 November.
Posted by Bryan W. Brickner