The Cannabis Papers: A citizen’s guide to cannabinoids (2011)
Mammalian Holstein Edition
Mammals produce serotonin (5HT); it’s transported from our gut, where 80-90% is produced (the rest made in one’s brain), until it connects with our serotonin receptors, our most prolific set with 15. Today’s serotonin system science update covers modulating our digestion: specifically, our gut. Below are three (brief) science stories from the National Institutes of Health (PubMed). The serotonin gut tales include: serotonin transporters and colitis pathogenesis, serotonergic and glutamatergic dual signaling, and, one for our mammalian clade (a single branch of the tree of life), 5HT liver glucose homeostasis during transition from pregnancy to lactation (making milk) in Holstein dairy cows.
Bonus: Medical News Today posted a good (gut) serotonergic summary in September 2014, What is serotonin? What does serotonin do? Learning about our serotonin systems will make us healthier; that’s really why they are studying the Holstein dairy cows, for example. Stress on a lactating dairy cow hurts profits; life's modulations, such as the stress of pregnancy, birth, and lactation, are serotonin system dependent – in all mammals, not just in Holstein dairy cows.
I. Colitis Pathogenesis, Serotonin and the Serotonin Reuptake Transporter (5-HTT)
“Serotonin (5-HT) release and serotonin reuptake transporter (5-HTT) expression have been reported to be decreased in experimental colitis, in interleukin-10 knockout-associated colitis, and in patients with ulcerative colitis. Serotonin is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of colitis, but individual genetic variants of 5-HTT gene in microscopic colitis and ulcerative colitis are not known. … A significant association was observed between LL genotype of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and microscopic colitis, suggesting that 5-HTTLPR is a potential candidate gene involved in the pathogenesis of microscopic colitis. Serotonin levels were significantly higher in microscopic colitis and ulcerative colitis patients compared to healthy controls.”
Association of Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) with Microscopic Colitis and Ulcerative Colitis.
Sikander A, Sinha SK, Prasad KK, Rana SV.
Dig Dis Sci. 2014 Dec 23. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 25532499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
II. Serotonin, Glutamate and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI)
“Neuroscientists have been puzzled by the fact that acute administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) produces results that are, at times, compatible with either decreases or increases in serotonergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, the underlying cause of the delayed onset of antidepressant effects of SSRI treatment has remained obscure. It has recently been reported that serotonergic raphe neurons co-release glutamate and that serotonergic and glutamatergic components constitute a dual signal with behaviorally distinct effects.”
Dual serotonergic signals: a key to understanding paradoxical effects?
Fischer AG, Jocham G, Ullsperger M.
Trends Cogn Sci. 2014 Dec 10. pii: S1364-6613(14)00237-X. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2014.11.004. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
PMID: 25532701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
III. Serotonin, Liver Glucose Homeostasis and Lactation (Holstein dairy cows)
“Nonneuronal serotonin (5-HT) participates in glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the actions of 5-HT in the liver during the transition period in dairy cattle. Here, we explore circulating patterns of 5-HT and characterize the hepatic 5-HT receptor and glucose transporter profiles around calving in multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 6, average lactation = 4 ± 1.9). … These results indicate that 5-HT could be important for liver glucose homeostasis possibly through receptor mediated signaling at specific times. Additional research is needed to further explore the functional role of these receptors in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation.”
Serotonin receptor expression is dynamic in the liver during the transition period in Holstein dairy cows.
Laporta J, Hernandez LL.
Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2014 Nov 26;51C:65-73. doi: 10.1016/j.domaniend.2014.11.005. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 25528206 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Video ~ Digestive Wellness: The Brain-Gut Connection with Liz Lipski, PhD, CCN (2010)
Posted by Bryan W. Brickner