The Cannabis Papers: A citizen’s guide to cannabinoids (2011)
Colorectal (colon) cancer awareness and the cannabinoid system (CS) are the focus of March’s health update from Publius and The Cannabis Papers: A citizen’s guide to cannabinoids (2011). This month: PubMed CS science on preventing carcinogenesis, inducing apoptosis, attenuating cancer’s damage, and an estrogen-responsive connection to controlling colon cancer proliferation.
2013 ~ Attenuating Damage and the CS
“These findings support a discrete role for CB2 receptors in the attenuation of detrimental pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated mucosal damage in the human colon without directly affecting mucosal epithelial barrier function.”
Cannabinoid CB2 receptor activation attenuates cytokine-evoked mucosal damage in a human colonic explant model without changing epithelial permeability.
Harvey BS, Nicotra LL, Vu M, Smid SD.
Cytokine. 2013 Aug;63(2):209-17. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2013.04.032. Epub 2013 May 22.
PMID: 23706402 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2013 ~ Immunoreactivity (Immune Reaction) and the CS
“The high immunoreactivity of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor is a significant prognostic factor following surgery in stage IV CRC [colorectal cancer].”
Expression of the cannabinoid type I receptor and prognosis following surgery in colorectal cancer.
Jung CK, Kang WK, Park JM, Ahn HJ, Kim SW, Taek Oh S, Choi KY.
Oncol Lett. 2013 Mar;5(3):870-876. Epub 2012 Dec 18.
PMID: 23426698 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
2012 ~ Preventing Carcinogenesis and the CS
“Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of Cannabis sativa, exerts pharmacological actions (antioxidant and intestinal antinflammatory) and mechanisms (inhibition of endocannabinoid enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for colon carcinogenesis.”
Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.
Aviello G, Romano B, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Gallo L, Piscitelli F, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2012 Aug;90(8):925-34. doi: 10.1007/s00109-011-0856-x. Epub 2012 Jan 10.
PMID: 22231745 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2011 ~ Inducing Apoptosis and the CS
“Cannabinoid receptor agonists induce phosphatases and phosphatase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cell lines; however, the role of the CB receptor in mediating this response is ligand-dependent.”
Induction of apoptosis by cannabinoids in prostate and colon cancer cells is phosphatase dependent.
Sreevalsan S, Joseph S, Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Safe SH.
Anticancer Res. 2011 Nov;31(11):3799-807.
PMID: 22110202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
2008 ~ Silencing Cancer and the CS
“Here we show that CB1 expression was silenced in human colorectal cancer due to methylation of the CB1 promoter.”
Loss of cannabinoid receptor 1 accelerates intestinal tumor growth.
Wang D, Wang H, Ning W, Backlund MG, Dey SK, DuBois RN.
Cancer Res. 2008 Aug 1;68(15):6468-76. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0896.
PMID: 18676872 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
2008 ~ Estrogen-Responsive Genes and the CS
“The CB1 receptor can be considered an estrogen-responsive gene in DLD-1, HT-29 and SW620 cells. Up-regulation of CB1 expression by 17beta-estradiol is a further mechanism of estrogens to control colon cancer proliferation.”
Estrogenic induction of cannabinoid CB1 receptor in human colon cancer cell lines.
Notarnicola M, Messa C, Orlando A, Bifulco M, Laezza C, Gazzerro P, Caruso MG.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jan;43(1):66-72.
PMID: 18938775 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2004 ~ Preventing Metastasis and the CS
“Therefore, specific inhibition of tumor cell migration via CB1-R engagement might be a selective tool to prevent metastasis formation without depreciatory effects on the immune system of cancer patients.”
Anandamide is an endogenous inhibitor for the migration of tumor cells and T lymphocytes.
Joseph J, Niggemann B, Zaenker KS, Entschladen F.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2004 Aug;53(8):723-8. Epub 2004 Mar 18.
PMID: 15034673 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2003 ~ Inhibiting Cancer and the CS
“The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) inhibit cancer cell proliferation by acting at cannabinoid receptors (CBRs).”
Possible endocannabinoid control of colorectal cancer growth.
Ligresti A, Bisogno T, Matias I, De Petrocellis L, Cascio MG, Cosenza V, D'argenio G, Scaglione G, Bifulco M, Sorrentini I, Di Marzo V.
Gastroenterology. 2003 Sep;125(3):677-87.
PMID: 12949714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
~ posted by bryan w. brickner