The History of Congress provides the evidence. The US Constitution mandates one House Representative for every “thirty Thousand” citizens per state (Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3). On 9 April 1792, Congress first changed the representation ratio without amending the Constitution: their small usurpation, from 30,000 to 33,000, has turned into a large usurpation – a ratio of one House Representative for every 710,000 citizens.
The taking of rights belonging to others – usurpation – animated our revolution: from the slogans “Don’t Tread On Me” and “No Taxation Without Representation” to the July 4th “Declaration By the Representatives of the United States of America,” the founding was political theory in action.
The revolutionaries, the founders, can be described as Lockeans; they learned from and ascribed to the political theories of John Locke (1632-1704), author of Two Treatises on Government (1680-90).
Viewing Locke as ‘the Founders’ Founder,’ one sees how his political writings on the morality of usurpation fueled the revolutionary spirit – the Spirit of 1776. Here are Locke's aphorisms on usurpation from Two Treatises:
§ 197. As conquest may be called a foreign usurpation, so usurpation is a kind of domestic conquest, with this difference - that an usurper can never have right on his side, it being no usurpation but where one is got into the possession of what another has right to. This, so far as it is usurpation, is a change only of persons, but not of the forms and rules of the government; for if the usurper extend his power beyond what, of right, belonged to the lawful princes or governors of the commonwealth, it is tyranny added to usurpation.
§ 198. In all lawful governments the designation of the persons who are to bear rule being as natural and necessary a part as the form of the government itself, and that which had its establishment originally from the people - the anarchy being much alike, to have no form of government at all, or to agree that it shall be monarchical, yet appoint no way to design the person that shall have the power and be the monarch - all commonwealths, therefore, with the form of government established, have rules also of appointing and conveying the right to those who are to have any share in the public authority; and whoever gets into the exercise of any part of the power by other ways than what the laws of the community have prescribed hath no right to be obeyed, though the form of the commonwealth be still preserved, since he is not the person the laws have appointed, and, consequently, not the person the people have consented to. Nor can such an usurper, or any deriving from him, ever have a title till the people are both at liberty to consent, and have actually consented, to allow and confirm in him the power he hath till then usurped.
Usurpations create tyranny, making Usurpation Day 2013 worth remembering.